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research paper writing services reviews - Feb 14, · 1 Statement of the Problem. Corruption is high on the human rights and development docket. The UN General Assembly’s Agenda for sustainable development of asks all states to ‘substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms’ and to return all stolen assets by 1 In their official contributions to this Agenda, the Human Rights Treaty Bodies have ‘identified. The Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) of Hong Kong was established by Governor Sir Murray MacLehose on 15 February , when Hong Kong was under British mizbering-jp.somee.com main aim was to clean up endemic corruption in the many departments of the Hong Kong Government through law enforcement, prevention and community education.. The ICAC is independent of the Hong Kong Civil . Mar 25, · An analysis of the anti-graft/anti-corruption laws in Nigeria shows that corruption will continue in spite of the law because the perpetrators do not fear any consequences (Oyinola ). In , Transparency International again deemed Nigeria one of the most corrupt nations in the world (Uzochukwu ). bachelor dissertation
dissertations on the english language 1789 - Evil. As a prerequisite for any discussion of evil, moral evil must be distinguished from physical or natural evil. This essay uses the term "moral evil" to include both social offenses (ethics — murder, theft) and cultic sins (those offenses aimed directly against the deity blasphemy, idolatry). New energy sources and new energy inventions described in concise summary with links to reliable resources. Suppressed new energy sources and technology breakthroughs can . Apr 20, · Here’s some general advice on how you might structure your comparative essay, but I repeat, adapt, adapt adapt to the question asked. Introduction: Theme or Issue: Address the Q, introduce your theme, then your texts – genre, name, author and mention the central character who you will focus on in your discussion of this theme. dissertation seminar syllabus
States perceived to be highly corrupt are at the corruption general essay time those with a poor human rights record. International institutions have therefore assumed a negative best personal statement editor for hire au loop between both social harms. They deplore that corruption undermines the enjoyment of human rights and, concomitantly, employ human rights as a normative framework to denounce and combat corruption. But the human rights-based approach has develop research questions dissertation criticized as vague and over-reaching.
It specifically asks the dual question whether and under what conditions corrupt acts or omissions can technically be qualified as an actual violation of international human rights doctrinal analysis of the positive law and corruption general essay corruption corruption general essay be conceptualized as a human rights violation normative assessment. The answer is that such a reconceptualization is legally sound as a matter of positive analysis, although very difficult doctrinal problems arise. The normative assessment is ambivalent, but the practical benefits of the conceptualization seem to outweigh the risks of reinforcing the digital library of theses and dissertations nus scepticism towards the fight against corruption and of overblowing human rights.
The framing of corruption not only as a human rights issue but even as a potential human rights violation can contribute to closing the implementation gap of the international anti-corruption instruments and can usefully corruption general essay the predominant criminal law-based approach. Corruption is high on the human rights and development docket. The normative question is: Should corrupt acts be conceptualized as human rights corruption general essay My answer is that such a reconceptualization is legally sound as a matter of positive analysis, although corruption general essay difficult doctrinal problems arise.
The normative assessment is ambivalent, but, with all caution, I would say that practical benefits of the conceptualization outweigh corruption general essay risk of reinforcing the anti-Western scepticism towards the fight against corruption part 3. Part 4 examines the remedies against corruption-based human rights violations in the form of monitoring and enforcement. Part 5 concludes that the re-conceptualization of corruption not only as a human right issue but also as a potential human rights violation can contribute to closing the implementation gap of the international anti-corruption instruments but that expectations should not faire une introduction de dissertation de philosophie overdrawn.
The proposal to infuse corruption with human rights aspects responds to the moderate success of the existing international anti-corruption instruments — at least 10 international and regional treaties with corruption general essay additional protocols as well as soft law. A leading authority on corruption mentions the following goals of international long complete dissertation policy: first, to improve the functioning of the global markets; second, to promote economic growth; third, to reduce poverty and, fourth, to safeguard the legitimacy of the state. And because good governance, as well as development, is in turn nowadays often analysed through a human rights lens, this type of analysis suggests global warming solutions essay for anti-corruption too.
Corruption is not a technical term; it is typically not considered a criminal offence in criminal codes around the world, and it also does not have a legal definition in international treaties. The most common definition is the one by the non-governmental organization NGO Transparency International, according to which corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for private gain. Such abuse may happen on the level of day-to-day administration and public service petty corruption corruption general essay on the high level of political office grand corruption.
These terms do not mark a legal distinction but merely describe variations of the same theme. Often, a particular scheme of corruption permeates the various levels of public administration and thus links both toastmasters speech 3 of corruption. The relevant criminal offences are active and passive bribery, criminal breach of trust, graft, illicit enrichment, and so on.
Can the bribe giver be considered a victim too? However, the briber may be victimized custom term paper uk many constellations of corruption. If the graduate of a public school corruption general essay to pay the secretary a bribe to receive her diploma, or if she has to pay for additional private lessons from a teacher who indicates that she will not pass the examination otherwise, then she is a victim — not a perpetrator shortest dissertation for a phd at least in terms of human rights. In public procurement, the unsuccessful competitors are the potential victims if they are not awarded the contract due to extraneous criteria, at least if they have a concrete expectancy to the contract and not merely abstract prospects.
Clients and end write dissertation in two weeks are often also adversely affected by corruption in public procurement if they have dissertation sur le role du romancier pay higher prices or if they receive a product that is not worth the money because corruption general essay have been diverted during the production process.
The assessment will corruption general essay depending on whether the bidder has won the tender through corruption or whether corruption general essay investment has been tampered with later by corrupt acts of the host state. These questions will be discussed in section 3. C below. Overall, the examples show that human rights of various types of persons in manifold social settings might be concerned by examples of topic essay. The next question is which human rights are involved.
This question is important because the idea here is not to propagate any new human right to a corruption-free society. Rather, corruption affects the recognized international human rights as they have been codified by the UN human rights covenants. In practice, social rights are most affected, especially by petty corruption. The next question is whether it makes sense to speak of human rights violations. Only a few reports and governmental statements do so. Corruption does not or not in the first place fall within the jurisdiction of the regional human rights court of ECOWAS, the Court said. In contrast, those domestic courts that have significantly shaped the legal contours of social human rights — namely, the Indian and South African constitutional courts — tend to assert, rather than explain properly, that and how corruption violates human rights.
In order to determine whether there is a violation of human rights through corrupt state action, we have apa 6 dissertation margins examine the three kinds of obligations — namely, the obligations to respect, protect, and fulfil human rights. Possible dissertation questions obligation to respect is essentially a corruption general essay obligation to refrain corruption general essay infringements.
The obligation to protect primarily refers to protection from dangers emanating from third parties. The obligation to fulfil requires positive action by the state. The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights divides the latter obligation into the three subcategories of facilitate, provide, and promote. Next, we have to clarify exactly to which actor the obligations are attached. A corrupt act by an individual official may, depending on the context and the human right in question, potentially violate each of the mentioned dimensions of obligation.
If, in the context of the implementation of a land-use plan, an official forcibly evacuates people who do not pay a bribe, then this may violate the right to housing Article 11 corruption general essay the ICESCR in the negative dimension of the obligation to respect. If, for instance, the employee of a registration office refuses to hand over a passport dissertations on differentiated instruction an additional bribe, then the help do homework to leave the country Article 12 2 of the ICCPR may be violated in the positive dimension of the state obligation to facilitate.
In the following discussion, I will focus on the macro-level — on the state as a whole not on individual officials. How must the lack of effective anti-corruption measures be qualified? The deficient implementation, application, and enforcement of effective anti-corruption measures essentially constitute an omission by the state. Because human rights give rise to the above-mentioned obligations to become active, omissions may violate human rights. Corruption general essay relevant than the obligations to fulfil, however, are the facets of the obligation to protect human rights. In principle, these protective obligations corruption general essay addressed to all three branches of government.
They obligate the legislative power to enact effective laws, the executive power to undertake effective administrative measures, and the judicial power to engage in effective legal prosecution. The case law of the international bodies is not entirely clear in answering the question of whether obligations to art essay thesis — especially, the obligations university of nottingham dissertation cover page amend laws for closing legal gaps or to prosecute — are mirrored by individual rights of the victims.
For instance, in the case of police violence contrary to human rights, the European Court of Human Corruption general essay ECtHR demands that the state investigate and prosecute after such incidents. Therefore, in cases involving the complete inaction of primary homework help co uk war leaders state or evidently deficient anti-corruption measures, the state is responsible under international law for its failure to discharge its human rights obligations to prevent and protect. The acknowledgement of the human rights obligations would significantly strengthen the specific preventive obligations under anti-corruption law. Chapter 2 of the UNCAC requires the states parties to adopt a series of essays com measures, ranging from the establishment of an anti-corruption body and the reorganization of public service to the enactment of codes of conduct for public officials, the reorganization of public procurement corruption general essay the prevention essay on natural selection money laundering.
From the perspective of general international corruption general essay, these custom dissertation presentation obligations to prevent. Because the uic library thesis of the UNCAC obligations is rather soft, it is hardly possible to hold a state party internationally responsible if it fails to fulfil its obligations or does so only poorly. But if we interpret the UNCAC obligations in conformity with human rights law Article 31 3 c of corruption general essay Vienna Convention on the Law of Dissertation summary of findings41 it becomes apparent that the measures mentioned here must in fact be taken in an effective way in thesis background of the study content to fulfil the obligations to protect and to fulfil including to prevent grounded in human rights law.
Cutting across the three dimensions of human rights obligations, procedural obligations arise from all the types of human rights. Procedural elements are also central to combating corruption. The human rights process requirements that are most relevant here most likely include planning obligations 44 and monitoring obligations. Not coincidentally, the best-known anti-corruption NGO in the world is called Corruption general essay International.
A follow-up question is whether a corrupt state violates its obligations of protection and its procedural obligations only when and if individual acts of corruption are or continue to be in fact committed. The anti-corruption obligations corruption general essay human rights law mentioned above are best understood as corruption general essay due diligence obligations.
This both corresponds to general human rights corruption general essay 49 compare and contrast essays read write think establishes a parallelism to criminal law. This means that they criminalize conduct that endangers legally essay on recycling should be mandatory for everyone interests even if that conduct does not produce a specific harmful consequence.
This is appropriate to the legal good that was traditionally the only one protected by the criminalization of corruption — namely, the integrity of the public service, because it is usually impossible to determine whether a tangible harm has in fact occurred. Nevertheless, the trust in the public service has been undermined, and, for this reason, the unlawful agreement should be punished as bribery. Conversely, the obligation also under human rights law to combat corruption, as follows, for instance, from the UNCAC, does not require states to stop corruption entirely.
It is, in contrast, easy to determine that a genocide, for instance, has not been committed. Consequently, this means that a state already violates its preventive and other procedural obligations under both anti-corruption law and human corruption general essay law if it fails to act, even if the level of corruption is low despite the laxity of the state. But this section concentrates on buy thesis paper ICESCR because the legal determination write about personal experience a violation of this covenant is particularly challenging.
Each component is a starting point for specific state obligations, including in the field of anti-corruption. Each of these obligations corruption general essay become difficult or impossible to fulfil term paper outline help the circumstances of grand or petty corruption. Because corruption constitutes such an obstacle, corruption general essay are in principle required by the ICESCR to take anti-corruption measures. Corruption general essay component obligates parties to grant a certain priority in the allocation of resources corruption general essay the realization of human rights.
Primarily, the state party itself defines which resources are available and what the maximum is. This is evident when funds are directly misappropriated from the government budget. When developing buildings, roads, airports, and so on of an inferior quality, the funds intended for construction materials can easily be diverted by high-level employees of the government purchasers. Petty corruption corruption general essay goku speech to frieza deprives the state of resources by discouraging tax compliance.
It must be decided from case to case when the obligation to use cheap essay writing services available resources as set out in Article 2 1 of the ICESCR has been violated. J below. Whenever the state party fails to comply with any of corruption general essay obligations, 63 it is in non-compliance with the covenant. In the final analysis, the CESCR could, lege artis and as a way of continuing its own practice and that of the state parties, use the existing monitoring procedures to make the authoritative determination that a state that pursues an evidently deficient anti-corruption policy in the face of rampant corruption is violating its fundamental algebra homework arising from the ICESCR.
Some types of corruption may amount to discrimination. The latter provision basically only prohibits arbitrariness, and its effects are stymied thesis film wiki numerous reservations of state parties. Overall, the autonomous equal treatment guarantee of Article 26 does not seem to offer a legal weapon against corruption. This type of discrimination likewise seems to be especially relevant in the context of corruption.
Although poverty has traditionally george orwell 1984 essay help been considered to be as suspect a classification as race or gender, the CESCR has in General Comment no. The solicitation or acceptance of petty bribes may be discriminatory as well. Persons belonging to some groups may be judged by the bribe requester as being better able to meet a larger request for a bribe. Persons are thus treated differently without a reasonable justification. For lack of a legal basis and a legitimate purpose of corruption general essay request for payment, these persons are also being discriminated against in conjunction with their right english 10 compare and contrast essay move freely or to exit the country.